Friday, July 17, 2020

25 ADHD-Friendly Tips for a Good Nights Sleep

25 ADHD-Friendly Tips for a Good Night's Sleep Sleep is important for your ability to focus and concentrate, mood, general health, and well-being. Unfortunately, many people with ADHD do not get the sleep they need. In fact, roughly 25% to 50% of people who have ADHD also have sleep problems.?? As a result,  ADHD symptoms  can be worse during the day. These 25 sleep strategies can help adults and children with ADHD get a better nights sleep. Creating an ADHD-Friendly Bedtime Routine A simple, consistent, and relaxing routine before bed helps prepare your body for sleep. Here are some suggested activities to include in your bedtime routine. Take a warm shower or bath. Sometimes, simple things can be very effective. Having a bath or shower is relaxing and will help you to fall asleep. Try aromatherapy. Some people find that  using aromatherapy oil at bath time helps them sleep, particularly scents like lavender, jasmine, and chamomile. Drink a warm cup of tea. Many people find that a cup of warm chamomile or “sweet dreams” tea helps promote a good night’s sleep. Be sure to choose a tea that doesnt have caffeine. Eat a light healthy snack. Too much food before bedtime can make sleep more difficult, but many people find that a light snack is helpful. Have dedicated quiet time. Spending some quiet time before bed helps the brain wind down and prepare for sleep. Here are some options to try during your quiet time: Quiet, focused playtime for childrenReading time for both adults and childrenListening to relaxing music or soothing outdoor sounds, like running water or cricketsDeep relaxation and breathing exercisesVisualizationMeditation Think positive thoughts. Though it may take some time to readjust your thinking, try to think “happy thoughts” at bedtime. Set aside those worries and any negative thoughts and get into the habit of positive thinking at bedtime. One tactic is to think of a favorite place, such as the beach. You might even play ocean sounds. Happy thoughts and good feelings can make it easier to drift off to sleep. Avoid Things That Keep You Awake The suggestions so far have been for items to include in a bedtime routine. However, it is also important to mention several things to avoid: Don’t start a hyperfocused activity at bedtime. Even though it can be hard, do not begin an activity that you or your child will hyperfocus on as it can be very hard to disengage and go to bed. Both adults and children can hyperfocus when they are using their computers or mobile phone. Removing the TV, computer, and mobile phone from the bedroom helps. Don’t drink alcohol. Many people think of alcohol as a sedative. Indeed, it does appear to help induce sleep. However, your sleep will be less restful and more disrupted. Alcohol can increase the number of times you wake up throughout the night and it stops you from getting the deep sleep you need to feel rested in the morning. Alcohol is also a diuretic and can cause you to wake up several times during the night to urinate. Don’t drink caffeine.  Avoid caffeine for at least four hours before bedtime or even eliminate it completely. Caffeine is a diuretic, so you may be making several bathroom trips during the night if you’ve consumed caffeine close to bedtime. Caffeine is also a stimulant, which can keep some people awake. Don’t smoke. Not only is  smoking  harmful to your lungs, but nicotine may also make it more difficult to fall asleep and can result in disrupted sleep during the night.?? Don’t eat sugar. Avoid sugary foods and drinks late in the day. That extra initial energy boost from sugars can make it more difficult to fall asleep. More Rituals to Try All of the activities in the bedtime routine will help to prepare you for sleep. Here are some additional rituals that can help you or your child fall asleep once you have climbed into bed. Listen to an audiobook.  A nice story can help children and adults wind down. Try listening in the dark with your eyes closed. Read. Many people read a book or magazine to prepare for sleep. However, a really gripping book may backfire and keep you turning the pages for hours. A magazine might be a safer choice as the articles are much shorter, no matter how interesting. Turn on some white noise. White noise is a gentle, steady, monotonous, peaceful sound like a fan humming or background sounds that are calming and not stimulating. Use a  transitional object. A soft, plush blanket or special, safe toy can help babies and toddlers transition to bedtime. A simple transitional object can continue to be helpful for older children. Stop worrying. Once your head hits the pillow, problems of the day can start racing through your mind making sleep impossible. One way to stop this is to keep a pen and pad of paper by your bedside. Jot down your thoughts and worries and promise yourself you will address them in the morning. Prepare your sleep environment.  Make sure your sleep environment is conducive to sleepâ€"pillows and mattresses are comfortable, lights are dim, the  temperature is cool (between 60 and 67 degrees Fahrenheit??), and it is quiet. 7 Breathing Exercises for Better Sleep Practice Healthy Habits Implement these healthy habits to help facilitate healthy sleep. Have a regular bedtime and wake-up time.  Going to bed at a set time each night and waking up at a regular time each morning promotes better sleep. Your internal biological clock helps regulate your sleep and wake cycles. Consistency helps keep that clock set right and ensures you get the adequate sleep you need. Exercise.  It promotes good health and overall well-being and also promotes good sleep. Vigorous exercise right before bed isn’t recommended, but numerous studies have found that regular exercise can improve your sleep quality.?? Be sure to include lots of physical outdoor play for your children who have ADHD. Be patient with changes. Sleep issues make take some time to resolve, so be patient. Stick with your routine and slowly but surely you will begin to experience the benefits of a good night’s sleep. Take Supplements That Promote Sleep Some people find supplements to help them with their sleep. It is important that you consult with your doctor before taking them as they may interact or interfere with other drugs you are taking. Consider taking melatonin.  This naturally-occurring hormone is secreted by a part of the brain called the pineal gland. Melatonin helps to regulate sleep. The dark stimulates the  production of melatonin  and light suppresses it. It can improve sleep onset and duration in children with ADHD?? and the elderly. It can also be helpful with those who work rotating shifts or are dealing with jet lag. Discuss using melatonin with your doctor as it may interact with other medications and supplements. Consider taking L-theanine.  This is an amino acid found in green and black tea that seems to work against the effects of caffeine. It is used by some people to reduce stress and promote relaxation. However, you could get its benefits by drinking tea earlier in the day (avoid caffeine in the evening). One study found that L-theanine can help improve sleep quality in boys, ages 8 to 12, with ADHD.?? Be sure to discuss any supplements with your doctor in case they may interact with medications. Visit Your Doctor While many sleep strategies can be implemented on your own, there are times when medical advice is needed. The last three tips are topics to talk to your doctor about. Check iron levels. Some people with iron deficiency anemia experience restless leg syndrome (RLS) which can cause difficulty falling and staying asleep.?? Adjust medication times. An adjustment in your ADHD medication dosage or the time medication is taken may help make sleep a little easier. Speak to your doctor about this. Seek help if sleep problems continue. Sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy, or other medical issues may be causing or contributing to sleep problems. If you continue to have concerns about sleep, consult your doctor.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Tree Disks and the Cross-Sections of Tree Limbs, Trunks

For those of you who dont know what a tree cookie is, a  tree cookie is a sliced portion of a tree trunk or limb that can show each and every annual ring on a viewable plane. A tree cross-section disk or cookie can be one of the best botanical teaching aids to kids and adults on things happening in a tree and environmental effects on trees. It is especially effective visually in conifer specimens and more specifically pine. Finding the Perfect Tree Cookie Selecting a tree species that shows well is important when showing annual ring structure. Species that display visible dark annual rings are pines, spruces, cedar, and firs. Conifers used as Christmas trees are great for this if you use a real tree over the holiday. The wood is soft, easy to cut, and sand, and always displays nice rings. Deciduous or broad-leaved trees can show nice rings by cutting their thick faster-growing branches (that also contain annual rings). Best trees for branch collections are oaks, ashes, maples, elms, cherry, and walnut. Trunk slices from these trees are often too large for display where rings are usually too tight and light to easily count. The best tool for quickly felling a small tree is the standard curved large tooth pruning saw. A pruning saw will make quick work on a small trees base or when cutting larger branches. At this point, you need to make a decision on whether to cut the cookies without drying or dry larger poles for cutting cross-sections later. These poles should be cut into four-foot segments with no end less than 2 inches in diameter. The ideal slice size for quick production and use for a classroom is about the diameter of a soda can. Slice the logs into cookie segments between 1 to 2 inches thick. Use the same pruning saw or, for a fine surface, use a motor-driven saw such as a radial arm saw. Drying Logs in a Kiln or Under Sheltered Storage Kiln-drying short poles can be a more involved step to carry out but make for a much better tree slice specimen. A sawmill yard supervisor can dry your tree cookie logs in days using their lumber kiln. These logs will be sufficiently dry, feel much lighter and easier to cut with little to no chance of cracking. If you have time and a space you can set the logs in a dry, well-ventilated place for about a year. Drying Cookies From Green Trees Drying cookies cut from green trees is critical. If the sections are not dried properly, they will attract mold and fungus and lose bark. Store your cut cookies in a dry, well-ventilated surface under low humidity for three to ten days. Turn them over daily to allow both sides to dry. Placing them on a driveway on a sunny day also works. Cracking is a major problem if the cookie is not dried over sufficient time with adequate ventilation. Getting the perfect â€Å"uncracked† cookie is a challenge, and the best way to prevent cracking is to cut cookies from a dried, not green, log or branch. Remember that the smaller the cookie, the less likely cracking will occur. Try cutting cookies from dried limbs, as the grain is often tighter in the limbs than in the main stem. Curing Cookies Using PEG Good preserving with less cracking results when you soak fresh-cut green cookies in polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG draws the water out and replaces it with the PEG, which is a waxy material with excellent wood stabilizing properties. It also is not cheap and should be used primarily for your best specimens. The disks from fresh-cut wood should be wrapped in plastic or immersed in water to keep in green condition until they can be treated. The PEG soaking time to obtain sufficient penetration against splitting and checking depends on the solution, the size, and thickness of the disks, and the species of wood. One month is usually sufficient soaking time and there is a drying time also associated.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of Leslie Mcfadden s The Nightmare Of Racial...

Leslie McFadden is the mother of the eighteen-year-old boy, Michael Brown who was killed by a police officer back in 2014. After her son’s death, Mrs. McFadden has traveled nationally to speak on behalf of her son and seek justice. This past October, Mrs. McFadden shared her testimony at the black studies conference in UT Austin, where she was described as a â€Å"wife, fighter, and believer in hope.† At the conference Mrs. McFadden discussed different themes such as the institutionalized racial segregation and violence she and many face in Ferguson. The nightmare of racial hatred is not a thing of the past but a present reality. Her strong will to move forward and to speak the truth makes Mrs. McFadden this generations Mamie Till. Through her personal experience Mrs. McFadden connect with the audience at a level a textbook can’t and encourages them to be vocal against injustice. Themes: Both institutionalized racial segregation and violence are themes that were discussed by Leslie McFadden at the conference that relate to the Civil Rights Movement, Black Power, and urban unrest. Institutionalized racial segregation has been around since, African Americans were brought to the U.S in the eighteenth century. In the case of Michael Brown, the ghettos in Ferguson are the results of institutionalized segregation. Institutionalized segregation is formed by the unjust mistreatment and discrimination a society demonstrates to a group of people. In the United States, African Americans

In Electricity Generation, an Electric Generator Is a Device Free Essays

Electric generator In  electricity generation, an  electric generator  is a device that converts  mechanical energy  to  electrical energy. A generator forces  electric charge  (usually carried by  electrons) to flow through an external  electrical circuit. It is analogous to a  water pump, which causes water to flow (but does not create water). We will write a custom essay sample on In  Electricity Generation, an  Electric Generator  Is a Device or any similar topic only for you Order Now The  source of mechanical energy  may be a reciprocating or turbine  steam engine, water falling through a  turbine or waterwheel, an  internal combustion engine, a  wind turbine, a hand  crank,  compressed air  or any other source of mechanical energy. The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by an  electric motor, and motors and generators have many similarities. In fact many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity, and very frequently make acceptable generators. ———-Historical developments Before the connection between  magnetism  and  electricity  was discovered,  electrostatic generators  were invented that used  electrostaticprinciples. These generated very high  voltages  and low  currents. They operated by using moving  electrically charged  belts, plates and disks to carry charge to a high potential electrode. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: * Electrostatic induction * The  triboelectric effect, where the contact between two insulators leaves them charged. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of  insulating  machines producing very high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power ratings and were never used for generation of commercially significant quantities of electric power. The  Wimshurst machine  and  Van de Graaff generator  are examples of these machines that have survived. Faraday’s disk In the years of 1831–1832,  Michael Faraday  discovered the operating principle of electromagnetic generators. The principle, later calledFaraday’s law, is that an  electromotive force  is generated in an electrical conductor that encircles a varying  magnetic flux. He also built the first electromagnetic generator, called the  Faraday disk, a type of  homopolar generator, using a  copper  disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe  magnet. It produced a small DC voltage. This design was inefficient due to self-cancelling counterflows of current in regions not under the influence of the magnetic field. While current was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions outside the influence of the magnetic field. This counterflow limits the power output to the pickup wires and induces waste heating of the copper disc. Later homopolar generators would solve this problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disc perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current-flow direction. Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was very low, due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil could produce higher more useful voltages. Since the output voltage is proportional to the number of turns, generators could be easily designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the number of turns. Wire windings became a basic feature of all subsequent generator designs. Dynamo The  dynamo  was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry. The dynamo uses  electromagnetic  principles to convert mechanical rotation intopulsed DC  through the use of a  commutator. The first dynamo was built by  Hippolyte Pixii  in 1832. Through a series of accidental discoveries, the dynamo became the source of many later inventions, including the DC  electric motor, the AC  alternator, the AC  synchronous motor, and the  rotary converter. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure, which provides a constant magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets; larger machines have the constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets, which are usually called field coils. Large power generation dynamos are now rarely seen due to the now nearly universal use of  alternating current  for power distribution and  solid state  electronic AC to DC power conversion. But before the principles of AC were discovered, very large direct-current dynamos were the only means of power generation and distribution. Now power generation dynamos are mostly a curiosity. Alternator Without a  commutator, a dynamo becomes an  alternator, which is a  synchronous singly fed generator. When used to feed anelectric power grid, an alternator must always operate at a constant speed that is precisely synchronized to the electrical frequency of the power grid. A DC generator can operate at any speed within mechanical limits, but always outputs direct current. Typical alternators use a rotating field winding excited with direct current, and a stationary (stator) winding that produces alternating current. Since the rotor field only requires a tiny fraction of the power generated by the machine, the brushes for the field contact can be relatively small. In the case of a brushless exciter, no brushes are used at all and the rotor shaft carries rectifiers to excite the main field winding. MHD generator Main article:  MHD generator A magnetohydrodynamic generator directly extracts electric power from moving hot gases through a magnetic field, without the use of rotating electromagnetic machinery. MHD generators were originally developed because the output of a plasma MHD generator is a flame, well able to heat the boilers of a  steam  power plant. The first practical design was the AVCO Mk. 25, developed in 1965. The U. S. government funded substantial development, culminating in a 25 MW demonstration plant in 1987. In the  Soviet Union  from 1972 until the late 1980s, the MHD plant U 25 was in regular commercial operation on the Moscow power system with a rating of 25 MW, the largest MHD plant rating in the world at that time. [2]  MHD generators operated as a  topping cycle  are currently (2007) less efficient than combined-cycle  gas turbines. ————————————————- Terminology The two main parts of a generator or motor can be described in either echanical or electrical terms. Mechanical: * Rotor: The rotating part of an  electrical machine * Stator: The stationary part of an electrical machine Electrical: * Armature: The power-producing component of an electrical machine. In a generator, alternator, or d ynamo the armature windings generate the electric current. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator. * Field: The magnetic field component of an electrical machine. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either electromagnets or permanent magnets mounted on either the rotor or the stator. Because power transferred into the field circuit is much less than in the armature circuit, AC generators nearly always have the field winding on the rotor and the stator as the armature winding. Only a small amount of field current must be transferred to the moving rotor, using  slip rings. Direct current machines (dynamos) require a  commutator  on the rotating shaft to convert the  alternating current  produced by the armature to  direct current, so the armature winding is on the rotor of the machine. ————————————————- Excitation An electric generator or electric motor that uses field coils rather than permanent magnets requires a current to be present in the field coils for the device to be able to work. If the field coils are not powered, the rotor in a generator can spin without producing any usable electrical energy, while the rotor of a motor may not spin at all. Smaller generators are sometimes  self-excited, which means the field coils are powered by the current produced by the generator itself. The field coils are connected in series or parallel with the armature winding. When the generator first starts to turn, the small amount of  remanent magnetism  present in the iron core provides a magnetic field to get it started, generating a small current in the armature. This flows through the field coils, creating a larger magnetic field which generates a larger armature current. This â€Å"bootstrap† process continues until the magnetic field in the core levels off due to  saturation  and the generator reaches a steady state power output. Very large power station generators often utilize a separate smaller generator to excite the field coils of the larger. In the event of a severe widespread  power outage  where  islanding  of power stations has occurred, the stations may need to perform a  black start  to excite the fields of their largest generators, in order to restore customer power service. ————————————————- Equivalent circuit The equivalent circuit of a generator and load is shown in the diagram to the right. The generator’s  VG  and  RG  parameters can be determined by measuring the winding resistance (corrected to operating temperature), and measuring the open-circuit and loaded voltage for a defined current load. ———————————————— [edit]Vehicle-mounted generators Early motor vehicles until about the 1960s tended to use DC generators with electromechanical regulators. These have now been replaced byalternators  with built-in  rectifier  circuits, which are less costly and lighter for equivalent output. Moreover, the power output of a DC generator is proportional to rotational speed, whereas the power output of an alternator is independent of rotational speed. As a result, the charging output of an alternator at engine idle speed can be much greater than that of a DC generator. Automotive alternators power the electrical systems on the vehicle and recharge the  battery  after starting. Rated output will typically be in the range 50-100 A at 12 V, depending on the designed electrical load within the vehicle. Some cars now have electrically powered  steering assistance  and  air conditioning, which places a high load on the electrical system. Large commercial vehicles are more likely to use 24 V to give sufficient power at the  starter motor  to turn over a largediesel engine. Vehicle alternators do not use permanent magnets and are typically only 50-60% efficient over a wide speed range. [4]Motorcycle alternators often use permanent magnet  stators  made with  rare earth  magnets, since they can be made smaller and lighter than other types. See also  hybrid vehicle. Some of the smallest generators commonly found power  bicycle lights. These tend to be 0. 5 ampere, permanent-magnet alternators supplying 3-6 W at 6 V or 12 V. Being powered by the rider, efficiency is at a premium, so these may incorporate  rare-earth magnets  and are designed and manufactured with great precision. Nevertheless, the maximum efficiency is only around 80% for the best of these generators—60% is more typical—due in part to the rolling friction at the  tyre–generator  interface from poor alignment, the small size of the generator, bearing losses and cheap design. The use of permanent magnets means that efficiency falls even further at high speeds because the magnetic field strength cannot be controlled in any way. Hub dynamos  remedy many of these flaws since they are internal to the bicycle hub and do not require an interface between the generator and tyre. Until recently, these generators have been expensive and hard to find. Major bicycle component manufacturers like Shimano and SRAM have only just entered this market. However, significant gains can be expected in future as cycling becomes more mainstream transportation and LED technology allows brighter lighting at the reduced current these generators are capable of providing. Sailing yachts may use a water or wind powered generator to trickle-charge the batteries. A small  propeller,  wind turbine  or  impeller  is connected to a low-power alternator and rectifier to supply currents of up to 12 A at typical cruising speeds. Still smaller generators are used in  micropower  applications. ———————————————— Engine-generator An  engine-generator  is the combination of an electrical generator and an  engine  (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of self-contained equipment. The engines used are usually piston e ngines, but gas turbines can also be used. Many different versions are available – ranging from very small portable  petrol  powered sets to large turbine installations. ————————————————- Human powered electrical generators A generator can also be driven by human muscle power (for instance, in field radio station equipment). Human powered direct current generators are commercially available, and have been the project of some  DIY  enthusiasts. Typically operated by means of pedal power, a converted bicycle trainer, or a foot pump, such generators can be practically used to charge batteries, and in some cases are designed with an integral inverter. The average adult could generate about 125-200 watts on a pedal powered generator, but at a power of 200 W, a typical healthy human will reach complete exhaustion and fail to produce any more power after approximately 1. 3 hours. 6]Portable radio receivers with a crank are made to reduce battery purchase requirements, see  clockwork radio. During the mid 20th century, pedal powered radios were used throughout the Australian outback, to provide schooling,(school of the air) medical and other needs in remote stations and towns. ————————————————- L inear electric generator In the simplest form of linear electric generator, a sliding  magnet  moves back and forth through a  solenoid  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ a spool of copper wire. Analternating current  is induced in the loops of wire by  Faraday’s law of induction  each time the magnet slides through. This type of generator is used in the  Faraday flashlight. Larger linear electricity generators are used in  wave power  schemes. ————————————————- Tachogenerator Tachogenerators are frequently used to power  tachometers  to measure the speeds of electric motors, engines, and the equipment they power. Generators generate voltage roughly proportional to shaft speed. With precise construction and design, generators can be built to produce very precise voltages for certain ranges of shaft speeds How to cite In  Electricity Generation, an  Electric Generator  Is a Device, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Strategic Challenges Of The 21st Century Essays - Planning, Vision

Strategic challenges of the 21st Century Introduction This module describes 'what is strategy' and 'what kind of strategic challenges can be faced by the organisation in the next century' by the impact of globalisation. The module of 'Strategic Challenges' consisted of 10 weeks time. During these sessions, I will be able to understand the strategy and its positive implementation and how to plan a strategic plan. The different seminar and presentations helped me in the development of personality. It also gave me direction to explain my ideas to other people. I have learnt a lot during this time. It will also help in my future. The first part of my module deals about 'what is strategy?'. Strategy basically deals with three basic questions and it applies to get the answer of these questions. The three questions are 'where are we today?', 'where we want to go in future?', and 'how we can go there?'. Strategy basically makes a bridge among these questions. Initially, strategy is related with or derives form the military vocabulary as term or tool. Than I explain the modern view of the strategy. I explain the concept of 'Globalisation' with its demands and complications. I also describe the impact of globalisation on the business. The last session of this model is about indicating the some 'Strategic Challenges' with the cope of globalisation impact, which would be faced by the organisations. The first challenge for the any organisation is to find out the complexity of the task and setting the vision of the organisation. Normally, strategy is designed by the top management and implemented by the operational management. In this model, I try to describe the every strategic challenge cope with schools of strategy by 'Mintzberg'. I have also included the different frameworks and diagrams of different authors. I have also included the different theories and concepts of other authors. All the challenges of the 21st century, I take form the Internet by the expert's strategic managers.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Top 10 Excuses You use to Put Off Writing That Paper -

Top 10 Excuses You use to Put Off Writing That Paper Top 10 Excuses You use to Put Off Writing That Paper One of the most difficult parts of writing a paper is getting started. There's something about taking that first step and sitting down to research and right that is so challenging to students. It is for this reason that you and other students often come up with excuses to put off the writing you should be doing right now. In fact, we've discovered that some excuses are really popular among students. Check out our top ten list of excuses that students like you use to put off writing that paper. Then, read our suggestions for getting past each excuse so that you can begin writing.         1. The Dorm Room is too Hectic Right Now First, take a minute to consider what you can do to make your place less hectic. Can you ask visitors to come back later? Can you turn down the volume on the tv? Can you close your bedroom door? If these steps don't solve your problem, there are plenty of quiet places to write on campus.          2. I am too Stressed Out From my Busy Day to Think Straight This is a valid reason to give yourself a thirty minute break. Take that time to watch an episode   of a television show, to check your Facebook, or to take a nice hot shower. Then, start writing.  There's no need to waste an entire evening without being at least a little productive.          3. I May not be Writing But I am Thinking About the Assignment If you do this, you are probably coming up with some very good ideas. Unfortunately, if you aren't writing them down, you won't recall most of these ideas later on. At the very least, you should be typing your thoughts into Evernote.          4. I Do My Best Work During the Day/Night Everybody has times when they are more productive than others. If you are truly better off with research paper writing during another time of day, that is fine. This is when you should be working on the more intense portions of your paper. However, you can still do a bit of note taking or light editing right now.          5. There are New Episodes of Orange is the New Black on Netflix This is totally understandable. Go ahead and watch one episode, but then write for at least thirty  minutes before watching another.          6. I Haven't Gone Out With Friends in Over a Week Unfortunately, you may have to make it another day without your friends. If you really want to  see your friends, invite them over for a homework session.                        7. I'll Do it Right After I Clean my Room This is fine if your room is truly so messy that it is distracting. Just make sure that you aren't rearranging your CD collection two hours later instead of writing your paper.          8. I Need to Get Some Sleep. I Will Start in the Morning If you are truly sleep deprived, you are making a good decision. If your version of sleep is  scrolling through Tumblr while laying in bed,   you can probably at least get out a paragraph or    two.          9. I Cannot Think of a Topic Good news! There is a solution to this. It involves sitting down and brainstorming topic ideas. If  you are truly stuck, try hitting the internet for some inspiration.         10. I Just Don't Understand the Subject Focus on what you do know. If you aren't able to get any writing done, you can try spending  some time writing out some questions for your instructor. This way you can get a bit of clarification.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Biography of Christopher Columbus

Biography of Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) was a Genoese navigator and explorer. In the late 15th century, Columbus believed that it would be possible to reach the lucrative markets of eastern Asia by heading west, instead of the traditional route which went east around Africa. He convinced Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain to support him, and he set off in August of 1492. The rest is history: Columbus discovered the Americas, which had been unknown until then. All in all, Columbus made four different journeys to the New World. Early Life Columbus was born to a middle-class family of weavers in Genoa (now part of Italy) which was a city well-known for explorers. He rarely spoke of his parents. It is believed that he was ashamed to have come from such a mundane background. He left a sister and a brother behind in Italy. His other brothers, Bartholomew and Diego, would accompany him on most of his travels. As a young man he traveled extensively, visiting Africa and the Mediterranean and learning how to sail and navigate. Appearance and Personal Habits Columbus was tall and lean, and had red hair which turned prematurely white. He had a fair complexion and a somewhat reddish face, with blue eyes and a hawkish nose. He spoke Spanish fluently but with an accent which was difficult for people to place. In his personal habits he was extremely religious and somewhat prudish. He rarely swore, attended mass regularly, and often devoted his Sundays entirely to prayer. Later in life, his religiosity would increase. He took to wearing the simple robe of a barefoot friar around court. He was a fervent millenarist, believing that the end of the world was near. Personal Life Columbus married a Portuguese woman, Felipa Moniz Perestrelo, in 1477. She came from a semi-noble family with useful maritime connections. She died giving birth to a son, Diego, in 1479 or 1480. In 1485, while in Cà ³rdoba, he met young Beatriz Enrà ­quez de Trasierra, and they lived together for a time. She bore him an illegitimate son, Fernando. Columbus made many friends during his travels and he corresponded with them frequently. His friends included dukes and other noblemen as well as powerful Italian merchants. These friendships would prove useful during his frequent hardships and bouts of bad luck. A Journey West Columbus may have conceived of the idea of sailing west to reach Asia as early as 1481 due to his correspondence with an Italian scholar, Paolo del Pozzo Toscaneli, who convinced him it was possible. In 1484, Columbus made a pitch to King Joo of Portugal, who turned him down. Columbus proceeded to Spain, where he first proposed such a trip in January of 1486. Ferdinand and Isabella were intrigued, but they were occupied with the reconquest of Granada. They told Columbus to wait. In 1492, Columbus had just about given up (in fact, he was on his way to see the King of France) when they decided to sponsor his trip. First Voyage Columbus’ first voyage began on August 3, 1492. He had been given three ships: the Nià ±a, the Pinta and the flagship Santa Maria. They headed west and on October 12, sailor Rodrigo de Triana spotted land. They first landed on an island Columbus named San Salvador: there is some debate today as to which Caribbean island it was. Columbus and his ships visited several other islands including Cuba and Hispaniola. On December 25, the Santa Maria ran aground and they were forced to abandon her. Thirty-nine men were left behind at the settlement of La Navidad. Columbus returned to Spain in March of 1493. Second Voyage Although in many ways the first voyage was a failure–Columbus lost his biggest ship and did not find the promised route west–the Spanish monarchs were intrigued with his discoveries. They financed a second voyage, whose purpose was to establish a permanent colony. 17 ships and over 1,000 men set sail in October, 1493. When they returned to La Navidad, they discovered that everyone had been killed by irate natives. They founded the city of Santo Domingo with Columbus in charge, but he was forced to return to Spain in March of 1496 to obtain supplies to keep the starving colony alive. Third Voyage Columbus returned to the New World in May of 1498. He sent half of his fleet to resupply Santo Domingo and set off to explore, eventually reaching the north-eastern part of South America. He returned to Hispaniola and resumed his duties as governor, but the people despised him. He and his brothers were bad administrators and kept much of the little wealth generated by the colony for themselves. When the crisis reached a peak, Columbus sent to Spain for help. The crown sent Francisco de Bobadilla as governor: he soon identified Columbus as the problem and sent him and his brothers back to Spain in chains in 1500. Fourth Voyage Already in his fifties, Columbus felt he had one more trip in him. He convinced the Spanish crown to finance one more journey of discovery. Although Columbus had proven a poor governor, there was no doubting his sailing and discovery skills. He left in May of 1502 and arrived to Hispaniola just ahead of a major hurricane. He sent a warning to the 28-ship fleet about to depart for Spain to delay but they ignored him, and 24 of the ships were lost. Columbus explored more of the Caribbean and part of Central America before his ships rotted. He spent a year on Jamaica before being rescued. He returned to Spain in 1504. Legacy of Christopher Columbus Columbus’ legacy can be difficult to sort out. For many years, he was thought to have been the man who â€Å"discovered† America. Modern historians believe that the first Europeans to the New World were Nordic and arrived several hundred years before Columbus to the northern shores of North America. Also, many Native Americans from Alaska to Chile dispute the notion that the Americas needed to be â€Å"discovered† in the first place, as the two continents were home to millions of people and countless cultures in 1492. Columbus’ accomplishments should be considered in conjunction with his failures. The â€Å"discovery† of America would certainly have taken place within 50 years of 1492 had Columbus not ventured west when he did. Advances in navigation and ship construction made contact between the hemispheres inevitable. Columbus’ motives were mostly monetary, with religion a close second. When he failed to find gold or a lucrative trade route, he began collecting slaves: he believed that a trans-Atlantic slave trade would be quite lucrative. Fortunately, the Spanish monarchs outlawed this, but still, many Native American groups correctly remember Columbus as the New World’s first slaver. Columbus’ ventures were often failures. He lost the Santa Marà ­a on his first voyage, his first colony was massacred, he was a terrible governor, he was arrested by his own colonists, and on his fourth and last voyage he managed to strand some 200 men on Jamaica for a year. Perhaps his greatest failure was his inability to see what was right before him: the New World. Columbus never accepted that he had not found Asia, even when the rest of Europe was convinced that the Americas were something previously unknown. Columbus’ legacy was once very bright–he was considered for sainthood at one time–but now he is remembered as much for the bad as the good. Many places still bear his name and Columbus Day is still celebrated, but he is once again a man and not a legend. Sources: Herring, Hubert. A History of Latin America From the Beginnings to the Present.. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962 Thomas, Hugh. Rivers of Gold: The Rise of the Spanish Empire, from Columbus to Magellan. New York: Random House, 2005.